A comparison of sports regulations on the use of wearable technology & data collection

Runner that is wearing wearable technology
Published 24 January 2018 | Authored by: Ani Ghazikhanian, Sean Cottrell

The increasing usage of wearable technology in sport has raised many interesting regulatory and legal issues, as governing bodies and leagues scramble to adapt to the rapidly developing industry. Teams ideally want to collect as much biophysical data about their players as possible. However, players are becoming increasingly wary of allowing their personal information to be recorded and harvested, and are asking more questions about who owns the data and how it can be used (a tension reflected in the negotiations of collective bargaining agreements).

To help bring some clarity to the space, this LawInSport reference resource provides a general overview of how different sports organisations currently approach the regulation of wearable technology. Please note that, given that this is a rapidly evolving area, regulations may well change, evolve and/or be supplemented to over time. We will endeavour to keep this resource as up-to-date as possible; and please do contact us if you have any comments and/or additional information.

This article covers the regulations of the following organisations:

 

  • Australian Football League (AFL)
  • Aviva Rugby Premiership (England)
  • British Horse Industry Confederation (equestrian, including dressage, jumping, and eventing)
  • International Fencing Federation (FIE)
  • Federation of International Basketball Federation (FIBA)
  • Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)
  • Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG)
  • Federation International Ski (FIS)
  • Federation International de Snowboarding
  • Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB)
  • Federation International de Volleyball - Volleyball (Indoor) (FIVB)
  • International Cricket Council (ICC)
  • International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)
  • International Olympic Committee (IOC)
  • International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)
  • International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF)
  • International Tennis Federation (ITF)
  • International Triathlon Union
  • National Basketball Association (NBA)
  • National Football League (NFL)
  • National Hockey League (NHL)
  • Major League Basketball (MLB)
  • Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)
  • United States Golf Association (USGA)
  • World Archery
  • World Badminton Federation (WBF)
  • World Curling Federation
  • World Karate Federation
  • World Rowing Federation, Federation Internationale des Societes d'Aviron (FISA)
  • World Rugby

 

 

AFL Logo Australian Football League (AFL)

Application within the Organization

Under the new AFL CBA between the AFL and Australian Football League Players’ Association Incorporated (AFLPA), wearable technology is addressed directly in a section entitled, “Player Tracking Devices.” In the CBA, the Player “will wear a GPA Unit in a match if requested by his Club.” Additionally, “Players may not be required to wear any other device, that collects performance or personal data during a match without the prior written approval of AFLPA.”71

The CBA also elaborates further on players rights in Section 45, specifically:

45.2 Use of Player Information - Broadcast

Performance data collected from Players wearing GPS Units during Senior Matches may be provided by the AFL and/or its licensees for use in the broadcast of and commentary about Senior Matches by Authorised Broadcasters subject to the following:

(a) Authorised Broadcasters may only be provided with the following data collected from GPS Units worn by Players during Senior Matches:

(i) Visualised identified player position (no accompanying physiological data);

(ii) Identified team summary metrics (i.e average speed, average/total distance including integration with captured statistics i.e. in possession, in dispute);

(iii) Identified top 5 players from both teams (cumulative) for:

(A) distance covered;

(B) average speed; and

(C) maximum speed, which data may be integrated with captured statistics;

(iv) Identified non-relativistic individual play breakdown

(Approved Broadcaster Data).

(b) Authorised Broadcasters will not be provided with access to the AFL Centralised Database which stores all performance data collected from Players wearing GPS Units during Senior Matches.

(c) Authorised Broadcasters will only be provided with Approved Broadcaster Data.

45.3 Use of Player Information - Clubs

(a) AFLPA acknowledge and agrees that performance data collected from Players wearing GPS Units during Senior Matches may be shared between Clubs for the purposes of live match and post-match coaching and analytics subject to the following:

(i) Centralised Database (Open Field) – Post Game

Each Club may access the following information through a centralised database after the conclusion of the relevant Match;

(A) De-identified summary player workload metrics

(B) Data utilised for player position and team, rather than by individual

(C) Data summarised as quarter by quarter averages, excluding bench periods

(D) Data to be uploaded immediately post match and will be available once migrated to AFL centralised account

(ii) Coaching Tactical System – Live and Post Game

Each Club may access the following information through the Coaching Tactical System:

(A) Visual identification of player position (live and post-game)

(B) Home club full identified high performance metrics (live and post-game)

(C) Away club full identified high performance metrics (post game only – available post match)

(Approved Club Data)

(b) The Approved Club Data will be made available:

(i) Through the Coaching Tactical System in a visual format only and shall not have the capacity to export or download raw tracking data.

(ii) To only 10 authorised persons at each Club subject to those persons entering into a confidentiality deed in a form agreed by the AFL and AFLPA.

45.4 Research, Performance and Integrity Use

The Parties acknowledge that the data collected by GPS Units may be used by the AFL for research (including Laws of the Game) and integrity purposes.

45.5 No Further Use

(a) Any additional use of performance data collected from Players wearing GPS Units and other devices during Matches by AFL, Authorised Broadcasters or Clubs must be approved by the AFLPA, provided that AFLPA shall act reasonably in determining whether to approve any such request.

(b) Clubs may only use Approved Broadcaster Data or Approved Club Data for coaching review and internal purposes only. Clubs may not use Approved Broadcaster Data or Approved Club Data for any other purpose.

(c) Clubs shall take all necessary steps to ensure that Approved Broadcaster Data and Approved Club Data within its control remains confidential other than as authorised under this Agreement.

(d) A Club and/or an Authorised Person may be sanctioned for a breach of this clause or any term of the confidentiality deed the subject of clause 45.3(b)(ii) under the AFL Rules.

45.6 Player has right to Information

(a) A Player may request access to performance data collected from Players wearing GPS Units during matches and training including Approved Broadcaster Data and Approved Club Data (Player Information).

(b) If requested, a Club must provide the Player with his Player Information which is held by the Club.72

Overview

If a Player’s Club requests the Player to wear a GPS Unit, the Player will wear the technology, however, Players will not be required to wear any other device that has not been approved prior to a match by the AFLPA.

Comment

Wearable technology is not only addressed in the CBA, but the use of the technology by players and clubs is discussed. Additionally, Section 45.5 of the CBA mentions that the data collected through GPS devices cannot be used further.

Aviva Premiership Rugby Aviva Rugby Premiership (England)

Application within Organization

Premiership Rugby adheres to the World Rugby's Regulation 12 Schedule 3, which is covered in more detail below. However, clubs such as Harlequins and Saracens have increased technology their use of technology performance tracking for the 2017-2018 Premiership season. Harlequins first team, for example, use three main devices during training which includes: GPS devices, drones and fixed lamppost cameras, and phone applications. With regards to the wearable technology, players wear a small GPS device sewn into a vest under their playing jerseys, which collects information about heart rate and position on the field. Through players use, the technology is able to detect how far each athlete runs, sustained high-speed running, how quickly each athlete changes directions, how fast each athlete can decelerate, total time spent on the field, and when significant impact has the potential to cause an injury.67

Additionally, a few years ago the English Premiership rugby club launched an innovative data collection system and research program in order to measure the effects of concussion on players.8 Teams, like Saracens, use impact sensors that players can wear behind their ears to help determine the effects of possible concussions. Information from the sensors is then downloaded on to a laptop by medical staff. Edward Griffiths, the Saracens chief executive, hopes that the “monitoring system can be developed so that a real-time assessment of blows to the head can be made during matches.9

With the usage of this technology, medical professionals will be able to assess physical damage on players instead of pulling a player to the sideline and directly asking the player questions. In an interview with The Telegraph Griffiths commented saying, “…we will now have actual data which will indicate the blow that is received and whether it is dangerous.”10

Most professional European rugby organizations use GPS.11 Every club in the Aviva Premiership uses wearable technology both during games and when training.12

Overview

Every club in UK Rugby Union’s Aviva Premiership has adopted wearable technology with players wearing GPS units on vests between their shoulder to measure speed and distance while training.13 GPS tracking devices, drones, and apps, along with other technology have been adopted by Premiership Rugby clubs with a view to increase the analytics, safety and performance of the players.14 This is a common trend as we will see over the course of this analysis.

Comment

The Premiership has not yet commercialized data collected from wearable technology as have other major sports organizations. This differs greatly from the NFL, NBA, and MLB, as will be illustrated later in the article. In addition to completing an education programme with players, coaches, management, and match officials, the Premiership welcomed the Saracens initiative to track concussion.15 However, any change that would need to be made in the rules, would need to be done through special permission from World Rugby.

British Horse industry Confederation British Horse Industry Confederation (equestrian, including dressage, jumping, and eventing)

Application within the Organization

The Strategy for the Horse Industry in England and Wales, prepared by the British Horse Industry Confederation in partnership with the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, and the Welsh Assembly government in 2005 includes a provision stating that the “horse industry needs to be able to utilize new technology and research and develop opportunities more effectively so as to boost its international competitiveness.”73 More recently, technology has started to infiltrate the equestrian world. In an effort to make the sport more interactive for sports fans, German technology company, SAP, has developed various technologies for fans. Moreover, the SAP Equestrian Analytics platform has the ability to capture live data from the course. Through sensors attached to riders and beacons as markers around the course, data is gathered about movement, speed, time, acceleration and obstacle position.74

From a coaching perspective, the GPS trackers affixed to players have the ability to show exact lines a rider traveled. This can provide coaches with various insights as to the various points the rider received. Furthermore, players can wear various articles of clothing that include sensors to track data including: compression shirts, footwear, and socks.7576

The rules used in Olympic Equestrian competitions are internationals rules defined and set by the Federation Equestrian (FEI). Although not defined in the rules and regulations, during scoring, elimination of both the rider and horse may occur should the horse be equipped with unapproved equipment.77

The British Equestrian Federation (BEF) does not define wearable technology nor does it specifically regulate wearable technology.78

Overview

Equestrian technology has increasingly risen throughout the horseracing world. It is seen as a device that could help riders, coaches, and the horses themselves. Although equestrian rules do not discuss the regulation in detail***

FIE Logo International Fencing Federation (FIE)

Application within the Organization

The FIE has seven documents on their primary website: Rules for competitions, New rules for the sabre (2016), Article t.120, offences and penalties, Organisation rules, Publicity code, Material rules, and Technical rules. However, none of the rule documents address wearable technology. The Rules for Competitions Book 3. Material Rules addresses the fencers’ weapons and equipment along with fittings and material provided by the organisers, but again does not address any additional wearable technology.70

FIBA Logo 2017 1Federation of International Basketball Federation (FIBA)

Application within Organization

Articles have been written regarding the use of various technological systems that can assist players and teams in various sport analytic determinations;16 however, FIBA has not released official statements regarding use of wearable technology.17 There are no specific regulations on wearable technology in the FIBA regulations, however, Articles 73-75 of Book 2 discuss accessories:

Accessories

73. All accessories must conform to the Official Basketball Rules (article 4.4).

74. The following provisions shall apply to eyewear, wristbands, headgear and knee braces:

  1. Advertising is prohibited;

  2. The manufacturer’s trademark (logo) is permitted, provided that it occupies an area of maximum twelve (12) cm2.

75. No advertising or manufacturers’ trademark (logo) is allowed on all other accessories.18

Article 4.4 of the Official Basketball Rules do not prohibit wearable technology outright, but if such items are not on the list of permitted accessories then FIBA’s Technical Commission must approve the item.19

Overview

FIBA currently collects heart rate data from referees, but that is the extent of the use of wearable technology at the moment (as per an email statement from a FIBA correspondent). Although it does not discuss wearable technology in it’s rules and regulations, Article 84 of Book 1 foresees the use of wearable technology in FIBA:

  1. In accordance with the General Statutes, FIBA is the sole holder of broadcasting, licensing, retail, marketing, sponsorship, data (including data gathered through wearable technology) and equipment rights, and other rights associated with the game now existing, or yet to be developed for the Competitions of FIBA, with the exception of the Olympic Basketball Tournaments. Any reference to the Competitions of FIBA in this Chapter shall be understood to exclude the Olympic Basketball Tournaments.20

Comment

Will FIBA will follow the approach taken by the NBA?

 

FIFA Logo 1 Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)

Application within Organization

Electronic performance and tracking systems (EPTS) devices include camera-based and wearable technologies and are used to control and improve player and team performance.41 EPTS primarily track player and ball positions, but can also be used in combination with microelectromechanical devices and heart-rate monitors as well as other devices to measure load of physiological parameters. The three forms of physical tracking devices currently available are: 1) optical-based camera systems, 2) local positioning systems (LPS), and 3) GPS/GNSS systems. GPS devices are used during training for the English Premier League as well as The Football Association (FA). The use of these devices must be in harmony to respective governing bodies. In the FA, when electronic performance and tracking systems (EPTS) are used in matches played in an official competition organized under FIFA, confederations or national football associations, the technology attached to the player’s equipment must contain certain insignia: “This mark indicates that it has been officially tested and meets the minimum safety requirements of the International Match Standard developed by FIFA and approved by The IFAB. The institutes conducting the tests are subject to the approval of FIFA. The transition period runs until 31 May 2018.” Where EPTS are used they can not be dangerous and information and data transmitted from the devices/systems is not permitted to be received or used in the match area during a live game.42

Optical-based cameras are non-invasive to players, commonly used in the football market, and provide a high sampling. Additionally, it is possible to track the ball. However, the limitations include: partial number of measurements, manual corrections required when tracking obstructions, and installation time. The device will be placed in cameras in football stadiums.

LPS will allow for a high number of measurements possible, accurate real-time data, and ultra-wide band technology which will reduce chances of interference in the transmission path. The downside of this technology includes fix installation, costs of installation, and the time it takes to install the device. This device will be worn on players and tracked through receivers placed on the pitch.

GPS/GNSS satellite systems will be worn on players’ backs (attached to a skintight fixture) and data will be tracked through satellite. The benefits include high number measurements, short installation time, and no need for an operator. Its shortcomings include discomfort to the player during match day, the visual of a satellite in the stadium, and accuracy concerns of measured data.43

Come March 2018, members of IFAB and FIFA are expected to unveil EPTS protocol.44

Comment

In March 2015, the International Football Association Board (IFAB) decided to allow wearable technology in football.45 Later that year, FIFA and IFAB announced that both were in the process of creating a global standard for wearables in football and invited several makers of EPTS devises to provide their devices to be evaluation.4647 This was the last official word from the governing body on wearable technology. It’s difficult to draw a conclusion regarding the use of wearable technology prior to FIFA and IFAB’s comments. However, football is beginning to take technology seriously as is evidenced with the use of goal line technology along with its interest with wearable technology.

FIG logo Square Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG)

Application within the Organization

Most forms of competitive gymnastics events are governed by FIG. The Federation regulates gymnastics based on the set of rules called the Code of Points. Although the Code of Points do not directly address the use of wearable technology, there has been evidence of gymnasts using devices outside of competition. Specifically, U.S. gymnasts are using a device called “Lumiwave” from a Colorado-based BioCare Systems in order to eliminate soreness. By using infrared pulses to induce the release of nitrous oxide, it promotes healing on a cellular level.79

 

Comment

The difference between the gold and silver can come down to decimals of a solid point. Athletes, coaches, and staff understand this significance and want to gather as much information that will help their athlete excel. Although wearable technology has not been used in official competition, it may make its way into the world of gymnastics.

FIS logo Federation International Ski (FIS)

Application within the Organization

222 Competition Equipment

222.1 A competitor may only take part in a FIS competition with equipment which conforms to the FIS Regulations. A competitor is responsible for the equipment that he uses (skis, snowboard, bindings, ski boots, suit, etc). It is his duty to check that the equipment he uses conforms to the FIS specifications and general safety requirements and is in working order.

222.2 The term competition equipment encompasses all items of equipment which the competitor uses in competitions. This includes clothing as well as apparatus with technical functions. The entire competition equipment forms a functional unit.

222.3 All new developments in the field of competition equipment must be approved in principle by the FIS.

The FIS does not take any responsibility for the approval of new technical developments, which at the time of introduction may contain unknown risk to the health or cause an increase in the risk of accidents.

222.4 New developments must be submitted by May 1 , at the latest, for the following season. The first year new developments can only be approved provisionally for the following season and must be finally confirmed prior to the subsequent competition season.

222.5 The Committee for Competition Equipment publishes equipment by-laws after approval by the FIS Council (definitions or descriptions of the equipment items which are allowed).

In principle unnatural or artificial aids which modify the performance of the competitors and/or constitute a technical correction of the individual's physical predisposition to a defective performance, as well as competition equipment which impact the health of the competitors or increase the risk of accidents are to be excluded.

222.6 Controls

Before and during the competition season or on submission of protests to the Technical Delegate at the competition concerned, various controls can be carried out by members of the Committee for Competition Equipment or official FIS Equipment Controllers. Should there be a well-founded suspicion that regulations were violated, the equipment items must be confiscated immediately by the controllers or Technical Delegates in the presence of witnesses and be forwarded sealed to the FIS, which will submit the items to a final control by an officially recognised institution. In cases of protest against items of the competition equipment, the losing party will bear the investigation costs.

No testing of equipment or material in independent laboratories may be requested at races where a FIS Technical Expert has performed the controls, unless it can be demonstrated that the controls have not been carried out according to the rules.

222.6.1 At all FIS events where official FIS measurement experts using the official FIS measurement tools are appointed, the result of measurements carried out at the time are valid and final, irrespective of previous measurements.102

224.6   The Jury may confiscate objects that are suspected of being used in violation of equipment guidelines.103

 Federation Internationale de Snowboarding

Application within the Organization

222 Competition Equipment

222.1 A competitor may only take part in a FIS competition with equipment which conforms to the FIS Regulations. A competitor is responsible for the equipment that he uses (skis, snowboard, bindings, ski boots, suit, etc). It is his duty to check that the equipment he uses conforms to the FIS specifications and general safety requirements and is in working order.

222.2 The term competition equipment encompasses all items of equipment which the competitor uses in competitions. This includes clothing as well as apparatus with technical functions. The entire competition equipment forms a functional unit.

222.3 All new developments in the field of competition equipment must be approved in principle by the FIS.

The FIS does not take any responsibility for the approval of new technical developments, which at the time of introduction may contain unknown risk to the health or cause an increase in the risk of accidents.

222.4 New developments must be submitted by May 1st, at the latest, for the following season. The first year new developments can only be approved provisionally for the following season and must be finally confirmed prior to the subsequent competition season.

222.5 The Committee for Competition Equipment publishes equipment by-laws after approval by the FIS Council (definitions or descriptions of the equipment items which are allowed).

In principle unnatural or artificial aids which modify the performance of the competitors and/or constitute a technical correction of the individual's physical predisposition to a defective performance, as well as competition equipment which impact the health of the competitors or increase the risk of accidents are to be excluded.

222.6 Controls

Before and during the competition season or on submission of protests to the Technical Delegate at the competition concerned, various controls can be carried out by members of the Committee for Competition Equipment or official FIS Equipment Controllers. Should there be a well-founded suspicion that regulations were violated, the equipment items must be confiscated immediately by the controllers or Technical Delegates in the presence of witnesses and be forwarded sealed to the FIS, which will submit the items to a final control by an officially recognised institution. In cases of protest against items of the competition equipment, the losing party will bear the investigation costs.

No testing of equipment or material in independent laboratories may be requested at races where a FIS Technical Expert has performed the controls, unless it can be demonstrated that the controls have not been carried out according to the rules.

222.6.1 At all FIS events where official FIS measurement experts using the official FIS measurement tools are appointed, the result of measurements carried out at the time are valid and final, irrespective of previous measurements.104

FIVB Logo Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB)

Application within the Organization

Over the past few years there have been several companies coming up with solutions focusing on wearables, specifically for beach volleyball. Two specific activity tracker have various beneficial features for sport: Swatch’s Touch Zero One and VERT. The first, records the power of a player’s smash, counts steps, measures the distance covers and calories burned, and connects the results to a smartphone via Bluetooth. VERT is a miniature inertial measurements unit (IMU) and allows players and coaches to view height jumps and jump count data. VERT can be affixed to clothing or worn as a waistband. The data is then transmitted to a smart device via Bluetooth.83

The FIVB Rules determine the specifications of the nets and posts, there is a provision in Part 2 – Section 1: Game of the Rules that addresses, “all additional equipment is determined by FIVB regulations.”84 Furthermore, the rules explain the equipment used specifically by the athletes, mainly the team jersey, or “tank-top.”85 Although the rules do not directly address wearable technology, Section 4.5 of the Rules discusses forbidden objects:

4.5.1 It is forbidden to wear objects which may cause injury or give an arti cial advantage to the player.

4.5.2 Players may wear glasses or lenses at their own risk.86

Comment

Within the last few years, there are several companies developing solutions focusing on wearables for beach volleyball. Additionally, per FIVB’s Definitions, namely under Unless By Agreement of FIVB, “[t]his statement recognizes that while there are regulations on the standards and specification of equipment and facilities, there are occasions when special arrangements can be made by FIVB in order to promote the game of Beach Volleyball or to test new conditions.”87 This is important to note, because it does leave a window open for arrangements to be made potentially involving wearable technology.

FIVB Logo Federation Internationale de Volleyball - Volleyball (Indoor) (FIVB)

Application within the Organization

Similar to beach volleyball, athletes use VERT during their indoor volleyball training. Specifically, the U.S. women’s volleyball team included the VERT jump monitor during their training. Additionally, the team, in preparation from the Rio Olympics, was using the device as an injury-prevention tool.88 USA Volleyball outside hitter Kelsey Robinson told Tech Crunch, “it gave the coaches something to monitor our workload…now we can track how many times a certain position is jumping and if they’re jumping more, they will shut us down and we’ll do other things…so we don’t physically exhaust ourselves.”89

Per FIVB rules, various sports materials and equipment are specified, that is:

No less than three years before the Olympic Games and two years before other FIVB or World competitions, the FIVB informs the organizer and potential participants of the sports material and equipment to be used during the competition.

National Federations cannot approve any material or equipment that has not been previously homologated by FIVB.

FIVB approved colored balls made of synthetic leather material must be used.90

Additionally, FIVB does allow for equipment and material for data recording and statistical evaluation and done by officials.91

ICC Logo1 International Cricket Council (ICC)

Application within Organization

Some teams have begun using wearable technology despite the gap in the rules of cricket. The Australian cricket team uses wearable technology to keep players from injury. The “torpedo technology” is built into a wearable unit that packs in an accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer motion sensors62 that can detect the delivery of the ball and measure the bowling intensity.”

Comment

The ICC maintains a set of playing conditions as seen in the “Laws of Cricket.” Although the organization specifies equipment along with general rules of the game, the regulating document does not have an allocated section for wearable technology.

IAAF Logo International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)

Application within the Organization

Rule 143

Clothing, Shoes and Athlete Bibs

Shoes

2. Athletes may compete barefoot or with footwear on one or both feet. the purpose of shoes for competition is to give protection and stability to the feet and a firm grip on the ground. Such shoes, however, must not be constructed so as to give an athlete any unfair additional assistance, including by the incorporation of any technology which will give the wearer any unfair advantage. A shoe strap over the instep is permitted. All types of competition shoes must be approved by IAAF.96

Rule 144 – Assistance to Athletes

3. For the purpose of this Rule, the following examples shall be considered assistance, and are therefore not allowed:

(a) Pacing in races by persons not participating in the same race, by athletes lapped or about to be lapped or by any kind of technical device (other than those permitted under Rule 144.4(d)).

(b) Possession or use of video recorders, radios, CD, radio transmitters, mobile phone or similar devices in the competition area.

(c) Except for shoes complying with Rules 143, the use of any technology or appliance that provides the user with an advantage which he would not have obtained using the equipment specified in, or permitted by, the Rules.

(d) the use of any mechanical aid, unless the athlete can establish on the balance of probabilities that the use of an aid would not provide him with an overall competitive advantage over an athlete not using such aid.

(e) Provision of advice or other support by any official of the competition not related to or required by his specific role in the competition at the time (e.g., coaching advice, indication of the take-off point in a jumping event except to indicate a failure in horizontal jumps, time or distance gaps in a race etc.).

4. For the purpose of this Rule, the following shall not be considered assistance, and are therefore allowed:

(a) Communication between the athletes and their coaches not placed in the competition area.

In order to facilitate this communication and not to disturb the staging of the competition, a place in the stands, close to the immediate site of each Field event, should be reserved to the athletes’ coaches.

(b) Medical examination / treatment and/or physiotherapy necessary to enable an athlete to participate or continue participation once on the competition area under Rule 144.1.

(c) Any kind of personal safeguard (e.g. bandage, tape, belt, support, etc.) for protection and/or medical purposes. the Referee, in conjunction with the Medical Delegate, shall have the authority to verify any case should he judge that to be desirable. (See also Rules 187.4 and 187.5.)

(d) Heart rate or speed distance monitors or stride sensors or similar devices carried or worn personally by athletes during an event, provided that such device cannot be used to communicate with any other person.

(e) Viewing by athletes competing in Field events, of images of previous trial(s), recorded on their behalf by persons not placed in the competition area (see 144.1 Note). the viewing device or images taken from it must not be taken into the competition area.97

IOC logo International Olympic Committee (IOC)

Application within Organization

The Director of Technology and Innovation for the US Olympic Committee, Mounir Zok, predicted wearable sensors will someday be as important as the types of shoes or other athletic gear athletes use.54

Comment

Although athletes have been using wearable technology during their training for the Olympics, the IOC has not published unified governing rules on wearable technology during the Olympic games.

With the increasing presence of technology in sports, athletes may see a new regulations through the IOC.

ITTF logo International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)

Application within the Organization

3.2 EQUIPMENT AND PLAYING CONDITIONS

3.2.1 Approved and Authorised Equipment

3.2.1.1  The approval and authorisation of playing equipment shall be conducted on behalf of the Board of Directors by the Equipment Committee; an approval or authorisation may be suspended by the Executive Committee at any time and subsequently the approval or authorisation may be withdrawn by the Board of Directors.

3.2.1.2  The entry form or prospectus for an open tournament shall specify the brands and colours of table, net assembly, flooring and ball to be used; the choice of table, net assembly and ball shall be as laid down by the ITTF or by the Association in whose territory the competition is held, selected from brands and types currently approved by the ITTF; for selected ITTF sanctioned tournaments, the flooring shall be of a brand and type currently approved by ITTF.

3.2.1.3  Any ordinary pimpled rubber or sandwich rubber covering the racket shall be currently authorised by the ITTF and shall be attached to the blade so that the ITTF logo, the ITTF number (when present), the supplier and brand names are clearly visible nearest the handle.

Lists of all approved and authorised equipment and materials are maintained by the ITTF Office and details are available on the ITTF website.

3.2.1.4  Table legs shall be at least 40cm from the end line of the table for wheelchair players.100

Additionally, during the match, referees have the discretion in “deciding any question of interpretation of Laws or Regulations, including the acceptability of clothing, playing equipment and playing conditions.”101

ITF Taekwon do logo International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF)

Application within the Organization

T 7. SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTIVE WEAR

  1. Competitors must wear:

    1. i.)  Red or Blue coloured hand and feet safety equipment.

    2. ii.)  Groin guards (mandatory for males only) must be worn inside the Dobok

    3. iii.)  Red or Blue coloured head guard.

    4. iv.)  Mouth guards being of a transparent colour.

Safety equipment must be of an approved type and certified by the Board of Directors. Approved Equipment shall be indicated in the World Event official invitation letter and ITF website.

  1. Competitors may, optionally, wear the following:

    1. i.)  Shin protectors.

    2. ii.)  Breast protectors (optional for female only) must be worn inside the Dobok jacket.

ii.) Groin guards (optional for females) must be worn inside the Dobok
These all being of an approved type consisting of elasticised material with sponge or rubber type padding and containing no metal, bone or hard plastic (accept for groin guards and breast protectors), the use of zip, lace or stud fasteners is forbidden.

c. No other protective or safety equipment may be worn, except in special circumstances with the approval of the Tournament Committee.

  1. All competitors with injuries which require bandaging or strapping of any kind must satisfy the Tournament doctor of their need, and obtain approval of type before performing i.e. no pins or hard material can be worn.

  2. No jewellery, watches or other adornments may be worn, hair may be kept in place using a material of a soft elastic nature only, no grips or slides are allowed.99

ITF Logo 1 International Tennis Federation (ITF)

Application within Organization

A new class of equipment that allows gathering and displaying detailed information about the players’ performance in real time, collectively called “Player Analysis Technology” (PAT) includes items that players wear, rackets, and devices located around the court (player tracking systems).55

The ITF states:

PAT includes any equipment that has the potential to record, store, transmit, analyze or communicate player performance information in real time during a match, and is sub-divided into three groups:

1. Integrated Equipment. Equipment which is carried or worn by players on court. This includes clothing – commonly referred to as ‘wearables’ (items that would otherwise be classed as clothing, e.g. Google Glass); tennis-specific equipment (e.g. rackets); and non-tennis-specific equipment (e.g. heart rate monitors, activity monitors).

2. Remote Equipment. Any device that is not carried or worn by the player (e.g. camera-based player tracking systems).

3. Auxiliary Equipment. Equipment which does not record player performance information, but may perform any of the other functions of PAT, such as tablets and mobile telephones and software operating on those devices.56

The ITF Rules of Tennis have changed from 1 January 2014 to include provisions about PAT. Specifically:

1. PAT devices will be permitted for use during competition played under the Rules of Tennis, subject to prior approval by the ITF.

2. There shall be no access to the information that PAT devices generate during a match by a player, except when play is suspended and when coaching is permitted. The information generated by PAT (and access to that information) will be treated in the same way as any other coaching information, so that the prohibition of coaching during a match is protected.57

The Player Analysis Technology Rules Section 31 specify:

Player analysis technology, that is approved for play under the Rules of Tennis, must comply with the specifications in Appendix III.

The International Tennis Federation shall rule on the question of whether any such equipment is approved, or not approved. Such ruling may be taken on its own initiative, or upon application by any party with a bona fide interest therein, including any player, equipment manufacturer or National Association or members thereof. Such rulings and applications shall be made in accordance with the applicable Review and Hearing Procedures of the International Tennis Federation (see Appendix XI).58

Appendix III discusses that Player Analysis Technology is “equipment that may perform any of the following functions with respect to player performance in information: A) Recording; B) Storing; C) Transmission; D) Analysis; and E) Communication to player by any kind or means.”59

Comment

The Rules of Tennis changed in 2014 to allow the use of technology during competition and to allow access to the information generated by that those devices during times when coaching is involved. 60

Although there exist a number of approved PAT products,61 it appears that the ITF is taking a more conservative approach based on the 2014 rule changes. So long as the player analysis technology complies with Appendix III and does not assist in communicating with a player during a match, the ITF approves of using wearable technology, along with few other approved technological developments.

ITU Logo International Triathlon Union

Application within the Organization

Wearable technology is seen throughout the world of triathlon. Although various competitions and regulatory bodies have differing specificities within their rules, the trend in triathlon seems to be in favor of wearable technology. For example, in the European IRONMAN competition, athletes are no longer permitted to use communication devices in any manner that is unsafe or is distractive.92 The British Triathlon Federation specifies that a verbal warning will be given to those who use “banned equipment (including, but not limited to, mobile telephones, MP3 players, metronomes, personal video recording devices.”93

Rule 4.8. Equipment

d.)  IllegalEquipment:

(i) Athletes must not use or wear:

  • Artificial propulsion devices;

  • Flotation devices;

  • Gloves or socks;

  • Wetsuit bottoms only;

  • Wetsuits when they are forbidden;

  • Non-certified swimsuits;

  • Snorkels;

  • Official race numbers (in non wetsuit swim only). 94

Rule 5.2 Equipment:

g.) Illegal Equipment:

  1. Illegal equipment includes, but is not limited to:

  • Headphone(s) or headset(s);

  • Glass containers;

  • Mobile phone(s) or any other electronic listening communication device;

  • Bike or parts of the bike not complying with these rules;

  • Uniform not complying with the ITU Uniform Rules.

h.) Any equipment or devices carried during the bike segment or added to the bike are subject to approval by the Race Referee before the race. Non approved devices are forbidden and may result in the disqualification of the athlete;

i.) For cameras and video cameras, in addition to requiring approval from the Race Referee, all the images and footage taken will be copied by ITU. The use of those images for commercial purpose is subject to approval by ITU EB.95

At the very least, athletes use trackers and wearable watches while they train.

NBA Logo National Basketball Association (NBA)

Application within Organization

In the 2017 CBA, the NBA and National Basketball Association Players Association (NBAPA) have agreed to a set of rules governing use of wearable technology by the league and its players.24 In Article XXII, Section 13 CBA, NBA players have, among other notable provisions, established the right to their own data, banned the use of such data in contract negotiations, and established standards for the approval of new devices and the punishment of data-use violations.

The CBA defines “Wearables” as:

"A device worn by an individual that measures movement information (such as distance, velocity, acceleration, deceleration, jumps, changes of direction, and player load calculated from such information and/or height/weight), biometric information (such as heart rate, heart rate variability, skin temperature, blood oxygen, hydration, lactate, and/or glucose), or other health, fitness, and performance information."25

The NBA and the Players Association have stated, in the CBA, that they shall form a joint advisory committee to review and approve wearable devices for players. The joint advisory committee, collectively called the Wearables Committee, shall consist of three representatives appointed by the NBA and three representatives appointed by the Players Association. At least one of the members appointed by each of the NBA and the Players associations must have at least three years experience in sports medicine, including, but not limited to positions such as a physician, athletic trainer, strength and conditioning coach, or sports scientists, in the NBA or with an NCAA Division I college basketball team. Additionally, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, Committee members may not have a financial stake or ownership of any company that produces or sells any wearable device.26

The Wearables Committee will have responsible for:

  1. Reviewing all requests by Teams, the NBA, or the NBPA to approve a wearable device for use by players, with the standard being whether the wearable device would be potentially harmful to anyone (including the player) if used as intended, and whether the wearable’s functionality has been validated; and

  2. Setting cybersecurity standards for the storage of data collected from Wearables.27

Furthermore, they the Wearables Committee will retain experts “as it deems necessary in order to conduct its work (e.g., to validate a wearable device or to set cybersecurity standards), which the parties expect to include professionals in areas such as engineering, data science, and cybersecurity.”28

According to the NBA’s new rules, it seems that there are generally more favorable provisions to the players, including:

A player will have full access to all data collected on him from approved Wearables. Members of the Team’s staff may also have access to such data but it can be used only for limited purposes as set forth below. Data collected from a Wearable worn at the request of a Team may be used for player health and performance purposes and Team on-court tactical and strategic purposes only. The data may not be considered, used, discussed or referenced for any other purpose such as in negotiations regarding a future Player Contract or other Player Contract transaction (e.g., a trade or waiver) involving the player. In a proceeding brought by the Players Association under the procedures set forth in Article XXXI, the Grievance Arbitrator will have authority to impose a fine of up to $250,000 on any Team shown to have violated this provision. 29

Furthermore, according to Section(e), “No Team may request a player to use any Wearable unless such device is one of the devices currently in use as set forth in Section 13(f) below or the device and the Team’s cybersecurity standards have been approved by the Committee.”30

A Team may also “request a player to use in practice (or otherwise not in a game) on a voluntary basis a Wearable that has not been approved by the Committee. A player may decline to use (or discontinue use of) a Wearable at any time.”31 Before any team asks any player to wear any wearable technology the team must share with the player: 1) What the device measures; 2) What each measurement mean; and 3) The benefits to the player in obtaining such data.32

The NBA and NBAPA have included a final provision in their CBA to “continue to discuss in good faith the use of Wearables in games and the commercialization of data from Wearables.” Furthermore, parties agreed that the Wearables “may not be used in games, and no player data collected from a Wearable worn at the request of a Team may be made available to the public in any way or used for any commercial purpose.” 33

Comment

Certain questions remain to be addressed such as how and on what scale will player data be sold to third parties? Does a player’s contract of employment with the team give that team a right to collect whatever information they want about him/her and use it however they like? And how can the players/teams themselves make a profit off of these data results?

The CBA for the NBA has been addressing wearable technology since it came into effect in July 2017. The adoption of the NBA’s CBA rules marks a major step forward in clarifying the boundaries of a relatively new frontier for basketball athletes, while still allowing room for growth.

 

NFL logo Square National Football League (NFL)

Application within Organization

The NFL has its own platform for pushing wearable insights.34 The latest agreement with WHOOP states that, “NFL players will have the ability to commercialize their WHOOP data through the NFLPA’s group licensing program.”35 Players will be provided with their own data in order to push back against the NFL’s accumulation of data.36

WHOOP is a company whose mission is to “unlock human performance.” Devices such as the WHOOP Strap 2.0 allow NFL players to monitor and improve performance on and off the field. The WHOOP Strap 2.0, designed for 24-hour performance, provides athletes, teams, and coaching staff and trainers with a continuous and personalized understanding of Strain, Recovery, and Sleep. The WHOOP Strap 2.0 will be distributed to every current and incoming NFL player.

Also, WHOOP has developed a Team Dashboard with “27 levels of privacy to ensure sharing data is completely secure and comfortable for all parties involved.”37

As part of the agreement, NFL players will own and control their individual data collected with the WHOOP Strap 2.0 and will design custom licensed bands for the WHOOP Strap for personal and commercial sale. NFL players will have the ability to commercialize their WHOOP data. The NFLPA and WHOOP will study the effects of travel, sleep, scheduling, injuries, among other points of interest, to find out more about recovery and generate reports to advance player safety and maximize athletic performance.38

Comment

The current CBA for the NFL will govern the sport through 2020. Although it does not mention wearable technology, the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) has made a deal, through the OneTeam Collective, with a wearable technology company, WHOOP. The partnership will make WHOOP the Officially Licensed Recovery Wearable of The NFLPA, making this the first time a players association in professional sports has partnered with a wearable technology company.39 The NFL differs from the NBA in that the NFLPA has recently reached an exclusive deal with WHOOP to provide players with data, which they themselves own and can sell as they see fit, whereas in the NBA, the question of who owns the data still remains unanswered40

NHL Logo  National Hockey League (NHL)

Application within Organization

Although the NHL Player’s Association (NHLPA) ratified its rules on NHLPA members on 12 January 2013, it does not include regulation regarding wearable technology. These rules, which will remain in effect until 15 September 2022, would govern the members of the League.21

The NHL began testing the waters with new wearable technology specifically made for hockey. One such technology was created by Michael Hardegger, an engineer from Zurich, Switzerland. The technology “uses sensors on player’s hockey sticks to determine the pressure, strain, and motion of a player’s shot. Sensors on skates can tell how fast a player moves their feet and how fast they move overall.” The players are then able to review data on a mobile device with a smartphone app.22

The NHL is collecting and analyzing large amounts of player performance data for a variety of purposes including form and fitness, prevent injury, train officials, and help keep fans informed.23

Comment

Although hockey seems to be less captivated by the use of wearable technology than other major organizations, the NHL is slowly starting to open its doors to the use of wearables within hockey.

MLB Logo  Major League Baseball (MLB)

Application within Organization

Wearable technology is governed by the MLB’s CBA and the Official Baseball Rules. The later requires that any new technology be approved prior to use on the field. 48

Specifically, Attachment 56 from MLB’s CBA states:

"Any use of a wearable technology by a Player (including use on-field, off-field and/or away from the ballpark) shall be wholly voluntary and Clubs must refrain from making any suggestion that the use of such technology is anything less than wholly voluntary. There will be no consequences to a Player if he declines to use any wearable technology, or if he discontinues his use of such a technology.

Before a Player can voluntarily agree to use a wearable technology, the Club must first provide the Player a written explanation of the technology being proposed, along with a list of the Club representatives who will have access to the information and data collected, generated, stored and/or analyzed (the “Wearable Data”). If the wearable technology includes the ability to create a login or otherwise provide direct access to the Player’s personal data, the Club shall make that data available to the Player. In the event this functionality is not avail- able, the Club must provide a copy of the Player’s data to the Player upon his request

Any and all Wearable Data shall be treated as highly confidential at all times, including after the expiration, suspension or termination of this Agreement, shall not become a part of the Player’s medical record, and shall not be disclosed by a Club to any party other than those persons listed in this Paragraph 4 without the express written consent of the Player and the Association. In addition, all such Data must be destroyed or permanently deleted in the event a Player requests to have such Data destroyed or deleted, in which case a Player may request a copy of his data prior to its destruction or deletion. Only the following Club representatives (and individuals working at the direction of such representatives) shall be permitted access to Wearable Data: General Manager, Assistant General Manager, Field Manager, Team Physician, Certified Athletic Trainer, Strength and Conditioning Coach, Rehabilitation Coordinator and an individual hired by a Club to manage the use and administration of wearable technology. A Player may request in writing that the Club further restrict or expand the list of representatives who will have access to such information and data. If the Club does not comply with such a request, the Player may decline to use or discontinue his use of the wearable technology.

Any commercial use or exploitation of such information or data by a Club, Major League Baseball, or any Major League Baseball-related entity or other third party is strictly prohibited

No Player may use a wearable technology in games or pre-game activities (e.g., batting practice)—and no Club may request that a Player use a wearable technology in games or pre-game activities—unless it has been approved by the Playing Rules Committee (“PRC”) in accordance with Official Baseball Rule 3.09 (Note). A list of technologies that have been approved (or partially approved) by the PRC shall be included annually in the On-Field Regulations."4950

As seen in the MLB’s CBA, data from wearable technology has been banned from arbitration without commercial use.51

Comment

The key points to take away from the CBA include52:

  1. All use of the devices is strictly voluntary, and there will be no consequences for players who decline.

  2. The club must make the data available to the player, and only a identified list of team employees — such as the manager, general manager, strength coach and medical and training staff — will have access to the information.

  3. A joint committee on wearable technology will review other devices for approval, such as this year’s addition of Catapult and WHOOP.53

  4. The data will be for player performance enhancement only, with the wording clearly prohibiting “any commercial use or exploitation of such information.”

The MLB’s CBA is relatively conservative in its approach to wearable technology. While they have incorporated provisions into the CBA, it seems that the MLB tries to meet the needs of the players who would like the data used to improve their performance without the fear that the data collected from them would be used by teams to hurt their careers.

 

Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)

 

Application within the Organization 

Any bicycle may be fitted with onboard technology equipment that has the ability and purpose to collect or transmit data, information or images. Such equipment shall comprise telemetry and transponder units and video cameras. Bicycles may be fitted with such equipment under the following conditions:

  • The system to install the equipment must be designed for use on bicycles and shall not affect the certification of any item of the bicycle;

  • The system to install the equipment must not allow the equipment to be removed during the race and the equipment will be considered non-removable;

  • The rider must not have any direct access to the images or information concerning other riders being collected or transmitted during the race.

Compliance with the aforementioned conditions and provided all other provisions of the UCI Regulations are respected, means that the use of onboard technology is authorised but does not imply that the UCI undertakes any responsibility for it. The UCI shall not be liable for any consequences deriving from the installation and use of onboard technology by licence holders, nor for any defects it may hold or its non compliance.

This article and the requirements contained herein do not apply to removable computers / rider information systems.

Notwithstanding the above, articles 4.3.014 or 6.1.060 remain fully applicable with regard to the use of onboard technology equipment.”106

USGA Logo United States Golf Association (USGA)

Application within the Organization

Technology, according to the PGA Tour, will “play a major role in the future of professional golf,”63 that is, technology worn by the players, not technology affixed to equipment players use. Players wear devices during practice rounds in order to assess strengths and weaknesses on the course.64 The USGA and R&A Rules Limited (R&A) made a joint statement regarding electronic devices recently. Although USGA and R&A first allowed the use of distance-measuring devices (DMDs) where the device only measures distance, in 2006, they made a statement regarding the clarification of rules. As such:

  • Distance-measuring devices (i.e., devices whose primary function is to measure distance) may continue to be used only if the local rule is in effect.

  • When the local rule is in effect, distance-measuring devices must be limited to measuring distance only. The use of a distance-measuring device would constitute a breach of the Rules if:

      • The device has the capability of gauging or measuring other conditions that might affect play (e.g., wind speed, gradient, temperature, etc), or;

      • The device has some other non-conforming feature, including, but not limited to, recommendations that might assist the player in making a stroke or in his play, such as club selection, type of shot to be played (e.g., punch shot, pitch and run, etc.), or green reading (i.e., a recommended line of putt), or other advice-related matters. However, it is permissible to use such a device, during a stipulated round, to access distance information from previous rounds that has been processed prior to the commencement of the current round (e.g., a chart of all club yardages), or;

      • The device has the capability to assist in calculating the effective distance between two points (i.e., distance after considering gradient, wind speed and/or direction, temperature or other environmental factors).

      • There would be a breach of the Rules even if all of the above features can be switched off or disengaged, and in fact are switched off or disengaged.

  • Multi-functional devices such as mobile phones, PDAs, etc (i.e., devices that are primarily communication devices, but which may have other potential uses) may be used as follows:

      • The device may be used for any non-golfing purpose (e.g., as a communication tool to phone, text or email), subject to any club/course regulations and the rules on accessing advice-related matters – see Decision 14-3/16.

      • When the local rule is in effect, a distance-measuring application may be used, provided the specific application is restricted to “distance only” and the device does not have any other “non-conforming” features. This is the case even if these other features are not being used. As above, the rules on advice-related communications (including the use of the internet) still apply.65

 

Should a device that is being used for distance-measuring purposes have any additional features, it must conform to the Rules of Golf. The joint statement mentioned that all manufacturers of distance-measuring products are encouraged to “submit their devices or applications to the appropriate governing body for a ruling.”66

Beginning in 2014, the USGA permitted the use of DMDs in all USGA amateur championships and their respective qualifying events providing an option Local Rule was introduced by a golf course or the committee in charge of a specific competition.67

Overview

Although several wearable technological devices are used by athletes golfing for leisure, the USGA only allows DMDs during competition.

Comment

In their statement, the USGA and R&A claimed, “the purpose of these rules is to protect golf’s best traditions, to prevent an over-reliance on technological advances rather than skill, and to ensure that skill is the dominant element of success throughout the game.” They continued, “permitting the use of a measuring device to provide the same information that can be obtained through use of a yardage book or on-course markings is not considered to diminish the skill level required to play the game.”68

In the conclusion of their statement, the USGA and R&A summarized that they had “no intention to permit the use of electronic devices to go beyond the current rules and interpretations” meaning that “distance measuring devices and applications will be limited to distance information only.”69 Should a device that is being used for distance-measuring purposes have any additional features, it must conform to the Rules of Golf.

World Archery logo World Archery

Application within the Organization

With a sport like archery, precision is of the utmost importance. Technology is playing a growing role in archery to help athletes become more precise in their sport. Archers have started training with various attachments to their equipment, however, in regards to wearable technology, archers are not allowed to use in the performance of their sport, any equipment or accessories that would give them an unfair advantage over an opponent. Per the Rules of Shooting, regulated by ArcheryGB, accessories such as “limb savers, bracer, dress shield, bowsling, belt or ground quiver, and tassels” are permitted.80 Specific rules pertaining to the athlete’s use of technology on the athlete’s body during competition are not stated.

World Archery Rules specify athletic equipment:

Chapter 11. Athletes Equipment

This article lays down the type of equipment athletes are permitted to use when shooting in World Archery competitions. It is the athlete’s responsibility to use equipment which complies with the rules.

Any athlete found to be using equipment contravening World Archery Rules may have his scores disqualified.

Described below are the specific regulations that apply to each division followed by the regulations that apply to all divisions.

The regulations set forth in 21, shall apply only to that discipline and shall take precedence in any case of conflict.

11.1. For the Recurve Division, the following items are permitted:

11.1.1. A bow of any type provided it complies with the common meaning of the word "bow" as used in target archery, that is, an instrument consisting of a handle (grip), riser (no shoot-through type) and two flexible limbs each ending in a tip with a string nock. The bow is braced for use by a single string attached directly between the two string nocks, and in operation is held in one hand by its handle (grip) while the fingers of the other hand draw and release the string.

11.1.1.1. Multi-coloured bow risers and trademarks located on the inside of the upper and lower limb or on the riser are permitted.

11.1.1.2. Risers including a brace are permitted provided the brace does not consistently touch the athlete’s hand or wrist.

11.1.2. A bowstring of any number of strands.

11.1.2.1. Which may be of different colours and of the material chosen for the purpose. It may have a centre serving to accommodate the drawing fingers, a nocking point to which may be added serving(s) to fit the arrow nock as necessary, and, to locate this point, one or two nock locators may be positioned. At each end of the bowstring there is a loop which is placed in the string nocks of the bow when braced. In addition one attachment is permitted on the string to serve as a lip or nose mark. The serving on the string shall not end within the athlete’s vision at full draw. The bowstring shall not in any way assist aiming through the use of a peephole, marking, or any other means.

11.1.3. An arrow rest, which can be adjustable.

11.1.3.1. Any moveable pressure button, pressure point or arrow plate may be used on the bow provided they are not electric or electronic and do not offer any additional aid in aiming. The pressure point may not be placed any further back than 4cm (inside) from the throat of the handle (pivot point) of the bow.

11.1.4. One draw check indicator, audible, tactile or visual may be used provided it is not electric or electronic.

11.1.5. A bow sight is permitted, but at no time may more than one such device be used.

11.1.5.1. It shall not incorporate a prism, lens, or any other magnifying device, levelling, electric or electronic devices nor shall it provide for more than one sighting point.

11.1.5.2. The overall length of the sighting circle or point (tunnel, tube, sighting pin or other corresponding extended component) shall not exceed 2cm in the line of vision of the athlete.

11.1.5.3. A sight may be attached to the bow for the purpose of aiming and which may allow for windage adjustment as well as an elevation setting. It is subject to the following provisions:

  • A bow sight extension is permitted;

  • A plate or tape with distance marking may be mounted on the sight as a guide for marking, but shall not in any way offer any additional aid;

  • The sight point may be a fibre optic sight pin. The total length of the fibre optic pin may exceed 2cm, provided that one end is attached outside the athlete’s line of vision at full draw, while the part within the athlete’s line of vision does not exceed 2cm in a straight line before bending. It can only provide one illuminated aiming spot at full draw. The fibre optic pin is measured independently of the tunnel.

11.1.6. Stabilisers and torque flight compensators on the bow are permitted.

11.1.6.1. They may not:

  • Serve as a string guide;

  • Touch anything but the bow;

  • Represent any danger or obstruction to other athletes.

11.1.7. Arrows of any type may be used provided they comply with the common meaning of the word "arrow" as used in target archery, and do not cause undue damage to target faces or butts.

11.1.7.1. An arrow consists of a shaft with a tip (point), nocks, fletching and, if desired, cresting. The maximum diameter of arrow shafts shall not exceed 9.3mm (arrow wraps shall not be considered as part of this limitation as long they do not extend further than 22cm toward the point of the arrow when measured from the throat - nock hole where the string sits - of the nock to the end of the wrap); the tips (points) for these arrows may have a maximum diameter of 9.4mm. All arrows of every athlete shall be marked with the athlete's name or initials on the shaft. All arrows used in any end shall be identical and shall carry the same pattern and colour(s) of fletching, nocks and cresting, if any. Tracer nocks (electrically/electronically lighted arrow nocks) are not allowed.

11.1.8. Finger protection in the form of finger tape, shooting glove (wrist strap allowed), finger tab or a combination of finger protection to draw and release the bowstring is permitted, provided they do not incorporate any device that assists the athlete to draw and release the bowstring.

11.1.8.1. Finger protection may incorporate an anchor plate for anchoring, thumb or finger rests for non-drawing fingers, finger straps around fingers to secure finger protection to the hand, finger separator between fingers to prevent pinching the arrow, tab plate/s for securing tab materials/layers together and plate extensions for consistent hand placement may be used. Finger protection may be made of any number of layers and material. No part of the finger protection may extend around the hand between thumb and fingers or beyond the wrist joint or restrict wrist movement. On the bow hand an ordinary glove, mitten or similar item may be worn but shall not be attached to the grip of the bow.

11.1.9. Field glasses, telescopes and other visual aids may be used for spotting arrows:

11.1.9.1. Provided they do not represent any obstruction to other athletes.

11.1.9.2. Scopes shall be adjusted so the highest portion of the scope is no higher than the armpit of the athletes.

11.1.9.3. Prescription spectacles, shooting spectacles and sunglasses may be used. None of these may be fitted with micro-hole lenses, or similar devices, nor may they be marked in any way that can assist in aiming.

11.1.9.4. Should the athlete need to cover the spectacle glass of the non-sighting eye, then it shall be fully covered or taped, or an eye patch may be used.

11.1.10. Accessories are permitted:

11.1.10.1. Including arm guard, chest protector, bow sling and belt or ground quiver. Foot markers may not protrude more than 1cm from the ground. Devices to raise a foot or part thereof, attached or independent of the shoe, are permitted provided that the devices do not present an obstruction to other athletes at the shooting line position or protrude more than 2cm past the footprint of the shoe. Also permitted are rubberized bow limb dampening devices. Wind indicators (non-electric or non-electronic) may be attached to the equipment used on the shooting line (e.g. light ribbons) electronic wind indicators may be used behind the waiting line.

11.2.

For the Compound Division, the following equipment is described. All types of additional devices are permitted, unless they are electric, electronic, compromise safety or create unfair disturbance to other athletes.

11.2.1. A Compound Bow, which may be of a shoot-through type riser, is one where the draw is mechanically varied by a system of pulleys or cams. The bow is braced for use by bowstring(s) attached directly to the cams, string nocks of the bow limbs, cables or by other means as may be applicable to the design.

11.2.1.1. The peak draw weight shall not exceed 60 lbs.

11.2.1.2. Cable guards are permitted.

11.2.1.3. A brace or split cables are permitted, provided they do not consistently touch the athlete’s hand, wrist or bow arm.

11.2.1.4. A bowstring of any type which may include multiple serving/s to accommodate nocking points and include other attachments such as a lip or nose mark, a peep-hole, a peep-hole ‘hold-in-line’ device, loop bowstring, etc.

11.2.1.5. The pressure point of the arrow rest which can be adjustable shall be placed no further back than 6cm (inside) from the throat of the handle (pivot point of the bow).

11.2.1.6. Stabilizers may not touch anything but the bow.

11.2.2. Draw check indicators, audible and/or tactile and/or visual may be used provided it is not electric or electronic.

11.2.3. A bow sight attached to the bow.

11.2.3.1. Which may allow for windage adjustment as well as an elevation setting, and which may also incorporate a levelling device, and/or magnifying lenses and/or prisms.

11.2.3.2. The sight points may be a fibre optic sight pin and/or a chemical glowstick. The glowstick shall be encased so as not to disturb other athletes.

11.2.4. A release aid may be used provided it is not attached in any way to the bow. Any type of finger protection may be used.

  • 11.2.5. The following restrictions shall apply:

  • 11.1.7 and 11.1.7.1;

  • 11.1.8.1;

  • 11.1.9 as limited by 11.1.9.2, and 11.1.9.3;

  • 11.1.10.1;

  • "Peep Elimination" sights can be used in Compound Divisions and assuming such a sight does not incorporate any electric or electronic device.

11.3. For athletes of both divisions the following equipment is not permitted:

11.3.1. Any electronic or electrical device that can be attached to the athlete's equipment.

11.3.2. Any electronic communication device, headsets or noise reduction devices in front of the waiting line provided that the use of software that simply allows the athlete to plot arrow impacts on the target as one would on printed paper used for the same purpose is permitted. No software that aids in bow sight adjustments may be used anywhere on the archery field (which includes any space either in front of or behind the shooting line up to the spectator area).

11.3.3. Athlete equipment shall not include camouflage colours of any kind.

11.4. For Olympic Games no electronic communication device is allowed on the competition field unless required by the Organising Committee.81

 

Comment

Within the last few years, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, in cooperation with Finland’s archery association has developed wearable technology for improving sports performance. These wearable sensors can be attached to archers’ equipment and from there data is wirelessly transferred to a smartphone or tablet. The measurable quantities in archery include the amount and directions of movement when aiming, the timing of different performance phases, and the movement made when releasing the arrow.82 The technology can be used during practice, when testing equipment and to some limited extent in competition.

BWF logo World Badminton Federation (WBF)

 

Application within the Organization

4.3 The racket:

4.3.1 shall be free of attached objects and protrusions, other than those used solely and specifically to limit or prevent wear and tear, or vibration, or to distribute weight, or to secure the handle by cord to the player's hand, and which are reasonable in size and placement for such purposes; and

4.3.2 shall be free of any device that makes it possible for a player to change materially the shape of the racket.109

5.EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE

The International Badminton Federation shall rule on any question of whether any racket, shuttle or equipment or any prototype used in the playing of Badminton complies with the specifications. Such ruling may be undertaken on the Federation's initiative or on application by any party with a bona fide interest, including any player, technical official, equipment manufacturer or Member Association or member thereof.110

World Curling federation Logo World Curling Federation

Application within the Organization

R10. EQUIPMENT

(a)  No player shall cause damage to the ice surface by means of equipment, hand prints, or body prints. The procedure will be:

  • 1st incident = 1st official on-ice warning, repair damage.

  • 2nd incident = 2nd official on-ice warning, repair damage.

  • 3rd incident = repair damage and remove player from the game.

(b)  No equipment shall be left unattended anywhere on the ice surface.

(c)  Teams must not use electronic communication equipment, or any device to modify the voice, during a game. With the exception of stopwatches that are limited to providing ‘time’ data only, the use of electronic devices during the games, which provide information to players on the field of play, are forbidden.

(d)  When a properly functioning electronic hog line device is being used:

(i)  The handle must be properly activated so that it is functioning during the delivery, or it will be considered a hog line violation stone.

(ii)  A glove or mitt must not be worn on the delivery hand during the delivery of a stone. If there is a violation, the delivered stone shall be removed from play, and any displaced stones shall be replaced, by the non-offending team, to their positions prior to the violation taking place.

(e)  The use of a delivery stick shall be restricted as follows:

(i) The delivery stick may not be used in any WCF competition or qualifying event, except wheelchair events.

(ii)  Players choosing to deliver with a delivery stick must use that device for the delivery of all their stones during the entire game.

(iii)  The stone must be delivered along a straight line from the hack to the intended target.

(iv)  The stone must be clearly released from the delivery stick before either foot of the player delivering the stone has reached the tee line at the delivery end. A stone is in play, and considered delivered, when it reaches the hog line at the delivery end.

(v)  A delivery stick shall not convey any mechanical advantage other than acting as an extension of the arm/hand.

(vi)  If a stick delivery violation occurs, the delivered stone shall be removed from play, and any displaced stones shall be replaced, by the non-offending team, to their positions prior to the violation taking place.105

World Karate Fed Logo World Karate Federation

 

Application within the Organization

Contestants

  1. The following protective equipment is compulsory:
    9.1. WKF approved mitts, one contestant wearing red and the other wearing blue.
    9.2. Gum shield.
    9.3. WKF approved body protection (for all athletes) plus chest protector for female athletes.
    9.4. The shin pads approved by the WKF, one contestant wearing red and the other wearing blue. 9.5. The foot protection approved by the WKF, one contestant wearing red and the other wearing blue.
    9.6. [VALID UNTIL 31.12.15 – ELIMINATED FROM 1.1.2016]: Cadets will, in addition to the above, also wear the WKF approved face mask.

Groin Guards are not mandatory but if worn must be of approved WKF type.

  1. Glasses are forbidden. Soft contact lenses can be worn at the contestant's own risk.

  2. The wearing of unauthorised apparel, clothing or equipment is forbidden.

  3. All protective equipment must be WKF homologated.

  4. It is the duty of the Match Supervisor (Kansa) to ensure before each match or bout that the competitors are wearing the approved equipment. (In the case of Continental Union, International, or National Federation Championships it should be noted that WKF approved equipment, must be accepted and cannot be refused).

  5. The use of bandages, padding, or supports because of injury must be approved by the Referee on the advice of the Tournament Doctor.111

See also: Karate Rule and Regulations.

World rowing logo World Rowing Federation, Federation Internationale des Societes d’Aviron (FISA)

Application within the Organization

Although FISA does not explicitly state specific rules pertaining to wearable technology, the Rules of Rancing and Related Bye-Laws address the use of equipment through “Communication and Electronics.”

  1. Communication and Electronics

    1. 5.1  Data Transmission – During racing (which shall mean at all times when racing “traffic rules” are in force), no communication with the crew is permitted from outside the boat using electric or electronic equipment. In addition, no data may be sent to, or received from the boat except as provided for in paragraph 5.3.

    2. 5.2  Allowable Data – During racing, the only information allowed to the crew in the boat shall be:

      1. 5.2.1  Time

      2. 5.2.2  Stroke rate

      3. 5.2.3  Boat Velocity / Acceleration

      4. 5.2.4  Heart rate

    3. 5.3  This information shall be designated as “allowable data”. This data and any information derived directly from it, may be recorded during racing for later use. No other data or information may be measured, recorded or stored. Failure to comply with this Bye-Law shall result in a sanction up to disqualification.

    4. 5.4  Regatta Information – FISA may install on each boat a device(s) for the purpose of transmitting real-time race and other information which shall be owned by FISA and may be used for any purpose including presentation and promotion of the event and the sport.98

Additionally, at certain events such as the World Rowing Championship, World Rowing Cup, or Olympic, Paralympic, Youth Olympic and relevant qualification regattas.

World Rugby Logo Square World Rugby

Application within Organization

According to Regulation 12 Schedule 3 of the World Rugby Handbook, Player Monitoring Devices are worn by Players to determine various parameters of performance during matches.1 Schedule 3 of Regulation 12 sets out specifications and requirements for Player Monitoring Devices such as general requirements relating to the ergonomics, construction, sizing, and design of the equipment.2

The requirements include: ergonomics, construction, size, weight, and shape, and performance requirements.

3. Requirements

3.1 Ergonomics

Devices must be designed and constructed to minimise discomfort for the wearer. Normal playing movements shall not be impeded by wearing the Device.

3.2 Construction

3.2.1 Construction Materials

It is the manufacturer’s responsibility that all materials used in the construction of the casing of the Device shall not be significantly or materially affected by ultra-violet radiation, water, dirt, perspiration, toiletries, household soaps and detergents. All materials coming into contact with the wearer’s body will not be of the type known to cause skin disorders and shall not cause abrasion of either the wearer or other Players.

3.2.2 Retention System

Devices must be secured to a Player’s person via one of two methods:

  • A pouch incorporated into the rear of the Player’s jersey; or

  • A pouch incorporated into a harness to be worn by the Player under the jersey, which complies fully with all relevant requirements of Law 4 and Regulation 12.

Whichever of those methods is used to retain the Device must ensure that the Device is held broadly in line with the Player’s T2 – T6 vertebrae, with its longest dimension parallel with the Player’s spine. The pouch must be small enough to ensure that the Device cannot rotate on any axis while worn by the Player.

Both methods must incorporate a padding material surrounding all sides of the Device which does not exceed 2mm thickness.

Padding materials must be homogeneous padding facing towards the wearer and must be the same texture, hardness and density as that facing the opponent). Foam padding of sandwich construction is not allowed.

3.2.3 Finish

Devices shall be so constructed that they will not cause any injury to the wearer or other Players during play.

3.3 Size, Weight and Shape

The declared dimensions of the Devices must be within the maximum and minimum dimensions detailed in Table 13, the actual dimensions measured by the test house must be within ±5% of these declared dimensions.

No surface of the Device may have a radius of curvature less than 12mm. This does not apply to:

  • Markings, where the depth of any profile does not exceed 1mm.

  • Any surface which has a radius of curvature less than 12mm must have a tangent that is less than or equal to 30° from the normal where the normal is perpendicular to the Player’s back when worn in the manner prescribed by the manufacturer. See Figure 1 below.

In addition, the following openings are permitted:

  • Openings for fixings must not be greater than the equivalent area of a circle with a diameter of 5.5mm.

  • Openings for connectors (charging points, etc.) must not be greater than 100mm2

The mass of the Device shall not exceed 0.09 kg, including the weight of any battery devices within it.

3.4 Performance Requirements

3.4.1 Resistance to Impact Loading

When tested in accordance with the procedures specified in Section 4.4.5, the Device shall not rupture by any manner detailed in Section 4.3.1.

3.4.2 Resistance to Compression Loading

When tested in accordance with the procedures specified in Section 4.4.6 the Device shall be deemed to have failed if it ruptures under loads less than 1.001kN. If a Device ruptures under loads of between 1kN and 2.5kN, then it must be assessed for failure as detailed in Section 4.3.2. If the Device does not rupture under a load of 2.5kN then the Device will be deemed to have passed the dynamic loading requirements.4

If, at any point a Device fails a testing requirement, the whole testing protocol must be stopped and the Device design determined to be non-compliant.

Overview

Regulation 12 Schedule 3 of the World Rugby Handbook sets out specifications identifying mandatory requirements for Player Monitoring Devices. The specifications are made “without seeking to compromise the form or appeal of the game and with the overall goal being to promote player welfare and reduce the risks of injuries to Players as far as practicable.”5

Comment

Much like the Rugby Premiership, World Rugby has begun using player monitoring devices, but has not yet commercialized the technology.

 

 

 

References

1† World Rugby Handbook, Regulation 12 Schedule 3, 5 September 2016 (https://www.worldrugby.org/handbook/regulations/reg-12/schedule-3).

2† Id.

4† Id.

5† Id.

6† Alan Dawson, “How GPS, drones, and apps are revolutionizing rugby,” Business Insider UK, 6 Sept. 2017, (see https://uk.businessinsider.com/harlequins-technology-has-revolutionised-aviva-premiership-rugby-2017-9).

7† John Gilligan, “How GPS Technology Is Changing Rugby,” Sport Techie, 19 May 2014 (see https://www.sporttechie.com/how-gps-technology-is-changing-rugby/).

8† Johnny Madill, “Wearable Tech In Sport: The Legal Implication of Data Collection,” 09 Apr. 2015, LawInSport, https://www.lawinsport.com/articles/item/wearable-tech-in-sport-the-legal-implications-of-data-collection.

9† Paul Bolton, “Saracens take fight against concussion to new level,” Telegraph, 4 Jan. 2015, (see https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/club/11324385/Saracens-take-fight-against-concussion-to-new-level.html).

10† Paul Bolton, “Saracens take fight against concussion to new level,” Telegraph, 4 Jan. 2015, (see https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/club/11324385/Saracens-take-fight-against-concussion-to-new-level.html).

11† John Gilligan, “How GPS Technology Is Changing Rugby,” Sport Techie, 19 May 2014 (see https://www.sporttechie.com/how-gps-technology-is-changing-rugby/)

13† Nicola K. Smith, “The wearable tech gives sports teams winning ways, BBC News, 15 Apr. 2016, (see https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-36036742).

14† Alan Dawson, “How GPS, drones, and apps are revolutionizing rugby,” Business Insider UK, 6 Sept. 2017, (see https://uk.businessinsider.com/harlequins-technology-has-revolutionised-aviva-premiership-rugby-2017-9).

15† Paul Bolton, “Saracens take fight against concussion to new level,” Telegraph, 4 Jan. 2015, (see https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/club/11324385/Saracens-take-fight-against-concussion-to-new-level.html).

16† Josh Isom, “Team USA Should Emply SportVU in the FIBA Basketball World Cup,” SportTechie.com, 20 Aug. 2014, see https://www.sporttechie.com/team-usa-should-employ-sportvu-in-the-fiba-world-championships/; SportUV allows teams to look at the analytics behind team chemistry and player performance.

17† See https://www.fiba.basketball for more information.

18† FIBA International Regulations, Book 2, Accessories, Articles 73-75, page 19, see https://www.fiba.basketball/internal-regulations/book2/competitions.pdf.

19† 2017 Official Basketball Rules, Art. 4.4.5 Other Equipment, page 13, see https://www.fiba.basketball/OBR2017/Final.pdf.

20† FIBA Internal Regulations – Book 1, Chapter 5: FIBA Commercial Rights, Ownership and Exploitation of Commercial Rights, Article 84, Page 19, see https://www.fiba.basketball/internal-regulations/book1/general-provisions.pdf.

21† Collective Bargaining Agreement Between National Hockey League and National Hockey League Players’ Association, September 16, 2012 – September 15, 2022.

22† Phillip Tracy, “Hockey Finally Getting Wearable Technology to Track Player Skills,” SportTechie, 1 June 2015 (see https://www.sporttechie.com/hockey-finally-getting-wearable-technology-to-track-player-skills/).

23† Brian R. Socolow & Ieuan Jolly, “Game-changing wearable devices that collect athlete data raise data ownership issues,” July 2017 (see https://www.loeb.com/~/media/files/publications/2017/08/gamechanging%20wearable%20devices%20that%20collect%20athlete%20data%20raise%20data%20ownership%20issues.pdf).

24† Rian Watt, “The New NBA CBA Addresses Wearable Technology, But What Does That Mean?” VICE Sports, 1 Feb 2017 (see https://sports.vice.com/en_us/article/8qy5eg/the-new-nba-cba-addresses-wearable-technology-but-what-does-that-mean)

25† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(a), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 359).

26† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(b), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 359).

27† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(c), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 359).

28† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(d), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 360).

29† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(h), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 361).

30† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(e), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 360). See also Section 13(f) which states, “Teams may continue to request that, on a voluntary basis, players use the following devices: adidas miCoach elite systems, Catapult Sports ClearSky and Optimeye systems, Intel Curie systems, STAT Sports Viper systems, VERT Wearable Jump Monitors, Zebra wearable tags, and Zephyr Bioharness systems.”

31† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(g), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 360).

32† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(g), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 360).

33† NBA Collective Bargaining Agreement, Art. XXII, Section 13(i), 19 Jan. 2017, (see https://nbpa.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2017-NBA-NBPA-Collective-Bargaining-Agreement.pdf page 361).

34† Conor Allison, “Wearable and ‘cheating’ in sport: We explore the state of play,” Wareable.com, 6 Sept. 2017 (see https://www.wareable.com/sport/wearable-regulations-nfl-mlb-nba-9465).

35† Rian Watt, “The New NBA CBA Addresses Wearable Technology, But What Does That Mean?” VICE Sports, 1 Feb 2017 (see https://sports.vice.com/en_us/article/8qy5eg/the-new-nba-cba-addresses-wearable-technology-but-what-does-that-mean).

36† Kevin Seifert, “NFL players grab a data equalizer in era of wearable technology,” ESPN.com, 24 Apr. 2017 (see https://www.espn.com/blog/nflnation/post/_/id/235806/nfl-players-grab-a-data-equalizer-in-era-of-wearable-technology).

37† “WHOOP Strikes Landmark Deal As The Officially Licensed Recovery Wearable of the NFL Players Association.” 24 Apr. 2017 (see https://www.nflpa.com/players/news/whoop-strikes-landmark-deal-as-the-officially-licensed-recovery-wearable-of-the-nfl-players-association).

38† “WHOOP Strikes Landmark Deal As The Officially Licensed Recovery Wearable of the NFL Players Association.” 24 Apr. 2017 (see https://www.nflpa.com/players/news/whoop-strikes-landmark-deal-as-the-officially-licensed-recovery-wearable-of-the-nfl-players-association).

39† “WHOOP Strikes Landmark Deal As The Officially Licensed Recovery Wearable of the NFL Players Association.” 24 Apr. 2017 (see https://www.nflpa.com/players/news/whoop-strikes-landmark-deal-as-the-officially-licensed-recovery-wearable-of-the-nfl-players-association).

40† Conor Allison, “Wearable and ‘cheating’ in sport: We explore the state of play,” Wareable.com, 6 Sept. 2017 (see https://www.wareable.com/sport/wearable-regulations-nfl-mlb-nba-9465).

42† For more information see IFAB Laws of the Game 2017-18, Law 4: The Players Equipment (https://www.thefa.com/football-rules-governance/lawsandrules/laws/football-11-11/law-4---the-players-equipment).

43† EPTS Electronic Performance and Tracking Systems (See https://football-technology.fifa.com/en/media-tiles/epts/).

44† Edgar Alvarez, “FIFA envisions a future where players wear in-game fitness trackers,” Engadget.com, 3 Aug., 2017 (see https://www.engadget.com/2017/08/03/fifa-epts-wearable-technology/).

46† FIFA and IFAB to develop global standard for electronic performance and tracking systems, 9 Oct. 2015 (see https://www.fifa.com/about-fifa/news/y=2015/m=10/news=fifa-and-ifab-to-develop-global-standard-for-electronic-performance-an-2709918.html).

47† Conor Allison, “Wearable and ‘cheating’ in sport: We explore the state of play,” Wareable.com, 6 Sept. 2017 (see https://www.wareable.com/sport/wearable-regulations-nfl-mlb-nba-9465).

48† Maury Brown, “How Wearable Technology Got Quietly Into Major League Baseball,” SportsMoney, 8 Dec, 2016 (see https://www.forbes.com/sites/maurybrown/2016/12/08/how-wearable-technology-got-quietly-into-major-league-baseball/#6681e3f3dafb).

49† 2017-2021 MLB Collective Bargaining Agreement (pages 334-336) (https://www.mlbplayers.com/pdf9/5450407.pdf).

50† The MLB has approved wrist-worn wearable device, known as WHOOP, for in-games use for the 2017 season; this makes WHOOP the first wearable device of its kind approved for in-game use for players within the MLB. (see https://www.si.com/tech-media/2017/03/07/mlb-approves-wrist-worn-wearable-device-whoop-game-use-2017-season).

51† Joe Lemire, “Baseball’s CBA Bans Wearable Data From Arbitration, Commercial Use,” Sport Techie, 28 July 2017 (see https://www.sporttechie.com/baseball-bargaining-agreement-wearable/).

52† Joe Lemire, “Baseball’s CBA Bans Wearable Data From Arbitration, Commercial Use,” Sport Techie, 28 July 2017 (see https://www.sporttechie.com/baseball-bargaining-agreement-wearable/).

53† See presence of Whoop in NFL section.

54† Deborah Weinswig, “The Road to Rio 2016: Swimwear, Payment Devices and Wearable Technology, DeborahWeinswig.com, 20 Jul. 2016, (See https://www.deborahweinswig.com/uncategorized/the-road-to-rio-2016-swimwear-payment-devices-wearable-technology/).

55† ITFTennis.com, see https://www.itftennis.com/technical/player-analysis/introduction.aspx.

56† ITFTennis.com, see https://www.itftennis.com/technical/player-analysis/introduction.aspx.

57† ITFTennis.com, see https://www.itftennis.com/technical/player-analysis/introduction.aspx.

60† Coaching is considered to be communication, advice or instruction of any kind and by any means to a player. In team events where there is a team captain sitting on-court, the team captain may coach the player(s) during a set break and when the players change ends at the end of a game, but not when the players change ends after the first game of each set and not during a tie-break game. In all other matches, coaching is not allowed.

61† Player Analysis and Technology Rules, Rules of Tennis 2017 – Rule 30. Coaching – Rule 31 Player Analysis Technology (see https://www.itftennis.com/technical/player-analysis/approved-products.aspx)

62† Michael Sawh, “Australian cricket team is usng wearable tech to keep bowlers injury free,” Wearable.com 27 May 2016, (see https://www.wareable.com/sport/cricket-australia-using-missile-technology-and-wearables-2776).

63† Jonathan Wall, “Wearable technology a new trend on TOUR,” 2 Sept. 2014, PGATOUR.COM https://www.pgatour.com/changing-game/2014/09/02/wearable-technology.html.

64† Id.

65† “USGA-R&A Joint Statement on Electronic Devices, Including Distance-Measuring Devise,” USGA.org, last accessed 15 Nov. 2017, https://www.usga.org/equipment-standards/usgara-joint-statement-on-electronic-devices-including-distancemeasuring-devices-21474847526.html.

66† Id.

67† “Distance-Measuring Devices,” USGA.com, last accessed 15 Nov. 2017 https://www.usga.org/content/usga/home-page/rules-hub/distance-measuring-devices.html.

68† “USGA-R&A Joint Statement on Electronic Devices, Including Distance-Measuring Devise,” USGA.org, last accessed 15 Nov. 2017, https://www.usga.org/equipment-standards/usgara-joint-statement-on-electronic-devices-including-distancemeasuring-devices-21474847526.html.

69† “USGA-R&A Joint Statement on Electronic Devices, Including Distance-Measuring Devise,” USGA.org, last accessed 15 Nov. 2017, https://www.usga.org/equipment-standards/usgara-joint-statement-on-electronic-devices-including-distancemeasuring-devices-21474847526.html.

70† Rules for Competitions Book 3. Material Rules, https://static.fie.org/uploads/8/44439-book%20m.pdf.

71† Collective Bargaining Agreement 2017-2022 Section 45.1 between Australian Football League and Australian Football League Players’ Association Incorporated, see https://www.aflplayers.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/2017-2022-CBA.pdf.

73† British Horse Industry Confederation, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Department for Culture, Media and Sport and Welsh Assembly Government, Strategy for the Horse Industry in England and Wales, Section 3.32, Page 53 (Dec. 2005), https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69260/pb11323-en-horse-industry-strategy-051128.pdf

74† Jen Booton, “How SAP Technology is Breathing New Life Into Equestrian Sports,” SportTechie, 25 Sept. 2017, https://www.sporttechie.com/how-sap-is-using-technology-to-engage-younger-equestrian-fans/.

75† Sensoria, uses sensors on socks to analyse different data. The socks can compare data between different pairs of running shoes or even riding boots as it has the ability to sense the pressure on the bottom of the foot. The Sensoria Socks 2.0 is infused with three proprietary textile sensors under the plantar area to detect foot pressure. A rider can there share data with whomever he or she chooses to do so. For more information, see https://www.sensoriafitness.com/footwear.

76† Fran Jurga, “High Tech for Horses and Wearable Sensors: CES 2016, Equestrian Style,” Equus Magazine, 11 Jan. 2016, https://equusmagazine.com/blog-equus/high-tech-horse-life-ces-2016-equestrian-style-31104.

77† For more information, see https://www.fei.org/fan/new_equestrian_tech. FEI commented on technology used throughout the horse world (27 Jul. 2016).

79† John Comstock, “Olympians turn to wearables, virtual reality and other digital health tools for an edge in Rio,” 5 Aug., 2016, Mobihealthnews, see https://www.mobihealthnews.com/content/olympians-turn-wearables-virtual-reality-and-other-digital-health-tools-edge-rio. Also, according to this source, the device has been used by Olympians as far back as 2004. It has recently been made available to the public.

80† Rules of Shooting, ArcheryGB, April 2017, see https://www.archerygb.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Proc0104RoSApril2017-22490.pdf

81† Book 3: Target Archery, Chapter 11: Athletes Equipment, see https://worldarchery.org/Rules.

82† “Boost sports performance with BTT’s wearable technology,” VTT, 14 Sept., 2015, see https://www.vttresearch.com/media/news/boost-sports-performance-with-vtts-wearable-technology.

83† Stefanie Crucius, “Wearable Devices for Volleyball,” 24 Mar. 2015, Wearable Technologies, see https://www.wearable-technologies.com/2015/03/wearable-devices-for-volleyball/.

84† Official Beach Volleyball Rules 2013-2016, Section 2.6, Pages 13-14, see https://www.fivb.org/EN/Refereeing-Rules/documents/FIVB-BeachVolleyball_Rules2013-EN_20130531.pdf.

85† Official Beach Volleyball Rules 2013-2016, Section 4.3 page 16, see https://www.fivb.org/EN/Refereeing-Rules/documents/FIVB-BeachVolleyball_Rules2013-EN_20130531.pdf.

86† Official Beach Volleyball Rules 2013-2016, Section 4.5 page 17, see https://www.fivb.org/EN/Refereeing-Rules/documents/FIVB-BeachVolleyball_Rules2013-EN_20130531.pdf.

87† Official Beach Volleyball Rules 2013-2016, Unless By Agreement of FIVB, page 64, see https://www.fivb.org/EN/Refereeing-Rules/documents/FIVB-BeachVolleyball_Rules2013-EN_20130531.pdf.

88† Mark Lelinwalla, “The US women’s Olympic volleyball team is using a wearable by VERT to monitor jumps,” 13, Jul. 2016, Tech Crunch, see https://techcrunch.com/2016/07/13/the-us-womens-olympic-volleyball-team-is-using-a-wearable-by-vert-to-monitor-jumps/.

89† Mark Lelinwalla, “The US women’s Olympic volleyball team is using a wearable by VERT to monitor jumps,” 13, Jul. 2016, Tech Crunch, see https://techcrunch.com/2016/07/13/the-us-womens-olympic-volleyball-team-is-using-a-wearable-by-vert-to-monitor-jumps/.

90† FIVB, Sports Regulations, Volleyball, Version: 15 May 2013, page 26, see https://www.fivb.org/EN/FIVB/Document/Legal/FIVB_Sports_Regulations_en_20130515.pdf.

91† FIVB, Sports Regulations, Section 18.4 and 18.5 respectively, Volleyball, Version: 15 May 2013, page 45 see https://www.fivb.org/EN/FIVB/Document/Legal/FIVB_Sports_Regulations_en_20130515.pdf.

94† International Triathlon Union, ITU Competition Rules, Rule 4.8, 12 Nov. 2014, Page 25, see https://www.triathlon.org/uploads/docs/itusport_competition-rules_december20141.pdf.

95† International Triathlon Union, ITU Competition Rules, Rule 5.2 17 Dec. 2014, Page 30, https://www.triathlon.org/uploads/docs/itusport_competition-rules_december20141.pdf

96† IAAF Competition Rules 2016-2017, Rule 143 Clothing, Shoes and Athlete Bibs, Page 150 https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/rules-regulations

97† IAAF Competition Rules 2016-2017, Rule 144 Assistance to Athletes, Page 153-154, https://www.iaaf.org/about-iaaf/documents/rules-regulations

98† Federation Internationale Des Societes D’Aviron (World Rowing Federation), Part IV Boats and Construction, Communication and Electronics, Page 62, see https://www.worldrowing.com/mm//Document/General/General/12/68/94/FISArulebookEN2017finalweb4_Neutral.pdf.

99† International Taekwon-do Federation, By Laws, T 7. Safety Equipment and Protective Wear, Page 3, https://www.taekwondoitf.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/ITF-World-Junior-Senior-Tournament-Rules-feb-8-In-force-of-January-1st-2013.pdf.

100† The International Table Tennis Federation, Handbook 2017, 3.2 Equipment and Playing Conditions, Page 33, https://d3mjm6zw6cr45s.cloudfront.net/2016/12/2017_ITTF_Handbook.pdf.

101† The International Table Tennis Federation, Handbook 2017, 3.3 Match Officials, Page 38, https://d3mjm6zw6cr45s.cloudfront.net/2016/12/2017_ITTF_Handbook.pdf.

102† Federation International de Ski (FIS), The International Ski Competition Rules (ICR), Book IV Joint Regulations for Alpine Skiing, 222 Competition Equipment, July 2013, Page 21. https://www.fis-ski.com/mm/Document/documentlibrary/AlpineSkiing/09/72/66/2013icrkangwonlandupdate_Neutral.pdf.

103† Federation International de Ski (FIS), The International Ski Competition Rules (ICR), Book IV Joint Regulations for Alpine Skiing, 224 Procedural Guidelines, July 2013, Page 24. https://www.fis-ski.com/mm/Document/documentlibrary/AlpineSkiing/09/72/66/2013icrkangwonlandupdate_Neutral.pdf.

104† Federation International de Ski (FIS), The International Ski Competition Rules (ICR), Book IV Joint Regulations for Snowboarding, 222 Competition Equipment, July 2016, Page 28-29, https://extern-d3.fis-ski.com/mm/Document/documentlibrary/Snowboard/08/60/35/SB_FIS_ICR16SnowboardMarked-up_English.pdf.

105† World Curling Federation, The Rules of Curling and Rules of Competition, R.10 Equipment, October 2017; see also https://www.worldcurling.org/rules-and-regulations-downloads.

106† Union Cycliste International, Clarification Guide of the UCI Technical Regulation, Article 1.3.024 Ter, Page 43, see https://www.uci.ch/mm/Document/News/Rulesandregulation/16/51/61/ClarificationGuideoftheUCITechnicalRegulation-2017.11.06-ENG_English.pdf.

107† World Para Athletics Rules and Regulations 2016-2017, Chapter 3 – ANTI-DOPING – MEDICAL SERVICES – TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT, pages 14-16, see https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/170315143852276_2017_03+World+Para+Athletics+Rule+Book_2016-2017.pdf.

108† World Para Athletics Rules and Regulations 2016-2017, Rule 7: Assistance to Athletes (IAAF Rule 144), page 50, see https://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/170315143852276_2017_03+World+Para+Athletics+Rule+Book_2016-2017.pdf.

109† World Badminton Federation, The Laws of Badminton, 4.3 The racket, https://www.worldbadminton.com/rules/#12.

110† World Badminton Federation, The Laws of Badminton, 5. Equipment Compliance, https://www.worldbadminton.com/rules/#12.

111† World Karate Federation, Competition Rules

https://www.wkf.net/pdf/wkf-competition-rules-version9-2015-en.pdf (last accessed 15 Dec 2017)

 

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About the Author

Ani Ghazikhanian

Ani Ghazikhanian

Ani Ghazikhanian is a third year law student at the University of Notre Dame Law School in the United States with a specific interest in sports law. She is interning with LawInSport and studying in London as part of the Notre Dame London Program for Fall 2017. Previous work experience includes interning with the NFL's Minnesota Vikings' in-house counsel.

Sean Cottrell

Sean Cottrell

Sean is the founder and CEO of LawInSport. Founded in 2010, LawInSport has become the "go to sports law website" for sports lawyers and sports executives across the world.

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Comments (1)

  • Medik Ghazikhanian

    10 February 2018 at 01:23 | #

    Very Well written article. Excellent penmanship!

    reply

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