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Comparing Approaches to Anti-Doping: WADA, MLB, NBA, NHL, NFL & UFC: Part 3

Part 3
Tuesday, 21 September 2021 By Alastair Campbell

The purpose of this series of articles is to review and compare the approach to key aspects of anti-doping policy taken by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the World Anti-Doping Code (the WADA Code), the National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), Major League Baseball (MLB), National Hockey League (NHL) and Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC).  The first and second instalments of this article (available here and here) compared the following:

Part One:

  • Governance and drafting;
  • Participation at the Olympics and Winter Olympics
  • Testing; and
  • Types of offence.

Part Two:

  • Dispute resolution;
  • Confidentiality and publication;
  • Substances of abuse; and
  • Therapeutic use exemptions (TUEs).

This third and final instalment will compare the approaches taken to sanctions, defences and additional consequences.

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Written by

Alastair Campbell

Alastair Campbell

Alastair is a sports lawyer and partner at Level.  He acts for clients in the sports sector across a broad range of issues, from contractual matters to questions of public law.  He also specialises in conduct, disciplinary and regulatory work, advising on non-contentious issues such as the drafting of regulations and procedures, as well as acting on contentious disciplinary matters (including cases related to betting and integrity).  He is experienced in advisory work and has extensive knowledge of regulatory structures in football. 

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